Most people commute to work in an automobile that runs on an internal combustion engine. During the workday, chances are high that the employee will interact with a computer that processes information on silicon bridges that are.09 microns wide. Upon leaving home, family members will be reached through wireless networks that utilize satellites orbiting the earth. Each of these common occurrences could have been inconceivable at the turn of the 19th century. The statement attempts to bridge these dramatic changes to a reduction in the ability for humans to think for themselves. The assumption is that an increased reliance on technology negates the need for people to think creatively to solve previous quandaries.
Human evolution, increasing brain size
The sample essays that follow were written in response to the prompt that appears below. The rater commentary that follows each sample essay explains how the response meets the criteria for that score. For a more complete understanding of the criteria for each score point, see the "Analyze an Issue" Scoring guide. As people rely more and essay more on technology to solve problems, the ability of humans to think for themselves will surely deteriorate. Discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the statement and explain your reasoning for the position you take. In developing and supporting your position, you should consider ways in which the statement might or might not hold true and explain how these considerations shape your position. Note: All responses are reproduced exactly as written, including errors, misspellings, etc., if any. Essay response — score 6, the statement linking technology negatively with free thinking plays on recent human experience over the past century. Surely there has been no time in history where the lived lives of people have changed more dramatically. A quick reflection on a typical day reveals how technology has revolutionized the world.
the Spectator 'revolutionises the conventional view of the passive eye in favour of a really dynamic, generative concept of vision. Inner Vision sets out to show, with admirable lucidity, clear diagrams and splendid colour platesthat several aspects of visual experience - above all colour - do not inhere in natural phenomena but result from the brain's interpretation of data.'. The times Higher Education Supplement 'zeki is al vijfentwintig jaar een van de leidende onderzoekers op het gebied van het visuele hernesonderzoek. Zijn boek a vision of the Brain uit 19 geldt nog steeds als een standaardwerk, dat bovendien uithlinkt in helder en toegankelijk taalgebruik. Dat kleurt ook zijn opwattingen over kunst. Met sonplesse flitst zeki in het rijk geillustreerde boek van Vermeer naar leviant, van Michelangelo naar Matisse en van Picasso naar cézanne'. Pieter Lomans, de volkskrant Netherlands.
He ably ties together art, science and commended for all those interested in the visual arts, and those interested in the working of the brain.'. The complete review 'gives the most perceptive general account we have of the workings of human vision.'. Israel Rosenfield, The new York review of books 'Inner Vision is the first systematic attempt to explain visual art in terms of science. Without biological foundations, the author believes, theories of aesthetics cannot be complete, much less profound. It is a tantalising proposal claim and leads to a stimulating volume, variously provocative and compellinga novel and vast itinerary is being attempted and this book is simply the first foray. A lively empire debate on the neuroscience of art is sure to follow.'. David Alais, Trends in Cognitive sciences 'fascinating and hugely thought-provoking.
Optometric Education zeki) Immer auf dem Grunde einer Einsicht, die er mit Petrarca teilt: dass die kunst, und vielleicht in besonders hohem maß die malerei, eine quelle der Erkenntnis ist.'. Lars Gustafsson, die zeit 'rigorous and stimulating. the times Literary supplement 'fascinating. Zeki's book is a delight for its unconventionality, as well as for its non-didactic foray into art history, psychology, photography, and visual neurobiology. He is specially powerful in describing colour vision for which his pioneering research is fiercely original'. Alan Snyder, The australian review of books 'zeki. Ha abierto un camino que será preseguido por otros científicos para analizar otras manifestaciones del arte y podría llevar en un futuro a una mejor comprensión de la experiencia estética.'. Miguel beato, saber leer 'fascinating. Zeki, a leading authority regarding the brain, also shows great familiarity with (and appreciation of) art.
Law of Accelerating Returns, kurzweil
Lassila bob Fink: The evolution of the maker social Brain (excerpts from the book "Continuum Greenwich Publishers) Flocking Together Through the web : Bird Watchers may be a harbinger of a true global Consciousness: a washington Post article The superOrganism Home page : using superorganism ideas. Heylighen, date Apr 17, 2003 (modified) (created). An Exploration Of Art And The Brain. By semir zeki, the work of the artist and the science of vision may seem distantly related as subjects. However, when leonardo da vinci wrote that, of all the colours, the most pleasing are the ones which constitute opponents, he was uttering a physical truth about the brain.
Inner Vision is the first attempt to relate art to the way in which the visual brain functions. Using a range of examples from artists including Michelangelo, rembrandt, vermeer, magritte, malevich and Picasso, semir zeki takes the reader on an aesthetic tour of the brain. This book is available in Chinese, japanese, greek and Italian. It will shortly be available in Korean and Spanish as well. Reviews of Inner Vision 'this is an intellectually stimulating discussion that would be of interest to artists, art critics and historians, philosophers, and eye care practitioners interested in perception.'.
The symbiotic Intelligence Project : a group at Los Alamos National Laboratory which studies self-organizing knowledge on distributed networks driven by human interaction. It has produced a few papers such as Symbiotic Intelligence and the Internet. Parker Rossman Research On Global Crises, Still Primitive? An online "book in process about how humanity's knowledge can be organized through collective intelligence in the form of a "world brain" system, to tackle various global problems, such as education, health care, peace, the environment, poverty and ethics. Stewart " evolution's Arrow : The direction of evolution and the future of humanity" (Chapman Press, australia, 2000 argues that evolution progresses in the direction of cooperative organisations of greater scale and evolvability, up to global society.
The logic of Human Destiny (Pantheon books, 2000) a very well-written book that develops a similar argument as Stewart of evolutionary progress towards greater complexity, intelligence and eventually global integration of humankind, on the basis of a retelling of human history. Michael Brooks Global Brain, new Scientist magazine,. A rather sensationalist feature article about the work of global brain researchers, based on interviews with heylighen, bollen, joslyn, johnson and goertzel. It emphasizes the scary, "Big Brother"-like possibilities, while minimizing the in-built protections against such abuse. For a somewhat more balanced view, read the accompanying editorial. Nsf/doc converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance : Nanotechnology, biotechnology, information Technology and Cognitive science (2002 a 400 page report by a large group of specialists about how these technologies working together can change our life during the next twenty years, and turn society into.
Human capital flight, wikipedia
181.a critical examination of the evolutionary mechanisms underlying the emergence of social "superorganisms like multicellular organisms, ant nests, or human organizations; concludes that humanity at present cannot yet be seen as a superorganism, and that there are serious obstacles on the road to further integration. Trappl (ed.) (1996 cybernetics and Systems '96 (Austrian Society for Cybernetic Studies. 917.discusses the precise mechanisms (learning, thinking, spreading activation,.) through which a brain-like global network might be implemented, using the framework of the theory of metasystem transitions; see also learning, brain-like webs and. Heylighen: " dillard The Global Superorganism : an evolutionary-cybernetic model of the emerging network society an extensive, in-depth review of the superorganism/global brain vision, and its implications for the future of society ben goertzel : World Wide Brain: The Emergence of Global Web Intelligence and How. David Williams The human Macro-organism as Fungus, wired.04 (1996). an intelligent parody of the superorganism view of society: "Pull Bill Gates out of his office and put him in the veldt - in four days he's a bloated corpse in the sun. ) lee li-jen Chen and Brian. Gaines : a cyberOrganism Model for Awareness in Collaborative Communities on the Internet, international journal of Intelligent Systems (ijis vol. (1997)an awareness-oriented framework for the web, based on Miller 's "living Systems" theory and a collective intelligence model, to conceptualize the Internet as an organism; particular emphasis on tools for time awareness; see also: Modeling the Internet as a cyberorganism: a living Systems Framework and.
explores the analogies between global networks and complex adaptive systems, and the applications of the network to modelling complex problem domains for a summary see: The Global Brain Concept Gregory Stock : "Metaman : the merging of humans and machines into a global superorganism (Simon. ( order through essay Amazon ) an optimistic picture of the evolution of society, with many statistics on economic, social and technological progress, in which humans and machines unite, and where the individual is increasingly tied to others through technology Brian. Gaines : The collective stance in Modeling Expertise in Individuals and Organizations, international journal of Expert Systems. (see also The Emergence of Knowledge through Modeling and Management Processes in Societies of Adaptive agents. (Proceedings of the 10th Knowledge Acquisition Workshop, banff, Alberta. 24-1:24-13) and other gaines articles ) an in-depth review of the literature on sociology, cognitive science and systems theory about the social function of knowledge; its "collective stance" views humanity as an organism partitioned into sub-organisms, such as organizations and individuals; proposes a positive feedback. Francis heylighen donald. Campbell : Selection of Organization at the social level: obstacles and facilitators of Metasystem Transitions, "World Futures: the journal of general evolution vol.
emergence of the " cybion " (cybernetic superorganism analysed by means of concepts from systems theory, and the theories of chaos, self-organization and evolution. Applications to the new network and multimedia technologies and to questions of policy. Valentin Turchin : The Phenomenon of Science. A cybernetic approach to human evolution, (Columbia university Press, new York, 1977). Cybernetic theory of universal evolution, from unicellular organisms to culture and society, culminating in the emerging "super-being based on the concept of the. Peter Russell : "The Global Brain Awakens: Our next evolutionary leap" ( Global Brain, 1996) (originally published in 1983 as "The Global Brain. For an excerpt, see towards a global Brain development of the superorganism theme in a "New Age" vision, with more emphasis on consciousness-raising techniques like meditation, and less on evolutionary mechanisms and technology. Gottfried mayer-Kress : several papers, including: Gottfried mayer-Kress cathleen Barczys (1995 "The Global Brain as an Emergent Structure from the worldwide computing Network the Information Society 11 (1).
Towards the world Brain by eugene garfield)a science fiction writer's prophetic vision of a world encyclopedia of knowledge that would provide a kind of global consciousness, like the world-wide web now does. Pierre teilhard de Chardin : "le phénomène humain" (seuil, paris, 1955). (translated as : ". The Phenomenon of Man " (1959, harper row, new York). The mystical and poetic vision of future evolutionary integration by this paleontologist and jesuit priest anticipates many recent developments. Teilhard popularized Vernadsky's term " noosphere biography " (mind sphere denoting the network of thoughts, information and communication that englobes the planet. See also: a globe, clothing Itself with a brain. Joël de rosnay : several books in French, including "l'homme symbiotique. Regards sur le troisième millénaire" (seuil, paris, 1996 translated as ".
A socratic Perspective on the
A collection of bill basic references, grouped by author, that explore the idea of the emerging planetary organism and its global brain, in the chronological order of first publication. This reference material serves as the basis for the "Global Brain" study group which has been set up by some of the authors listed below. For a more up-to-date list of references, check the bibliography of the. Global Brain Institute, herbert Spencer, the Principles of Sociology (1876-96 (see intro and excerpt, including "Society is an organism" )Remarkable to note how many recently fashionable ideas about superorganisms and evolutionary integration have already been proposed by this evolutionary thinker over a century ago. Spencer coined the phrase "survival of the fittest which was later taken over by darwin. Wells, world Brain (1938 (see also:. Wellss' Idea of a world Brain : a critical re-assessment,. Boyd rayward, constructing the world mind, and.